Thursday, March 30, 2017
If you haven't yet had a "gear up" you are lucky, or maybe just well trained and careful. Although I have never had a gear up landing, I almost did. Years back when I was doing some instrument flight training with an instructor in the right seat, I was on short final ready to touch down. The instructor said "have you forgotten something?" I had not put the gear down. That was a close call, but my only one, with over 4,000 hours of flying. I offer a word of advice. I have a routine which insures that the landing gear is down properly. I look for the three green lights and think or say "three in the green." In 2013 NASA reported an average of 60 gear up landings annually and in 2003 there were 96 reported by the NTSB. In addition, I don't know how many landing gear failures (LGF) occurred which may or may not be included under "gear up".
I just read an incidental study that landing gear ranks second after engines as systems prone to failure.
This is really a separate issue than routine gear ups. That is because the pilot at least tried to raise or lower the gear, but a mechanical situation prevented it from happening. Just to give you an idea of the more common causes of (LGF), I'll relate some given by DVI Aviation*.
Improper repair or maintenance
Improper installation of parts
Parts worn beyond allowable service limits
Failure or fatigue of parts
Lack of lubrication and or hydraulic fluid
Finally, from a study by Canadian Aircraft Maintenance Management Information Systems**,
largely dealing with military planes, the following was found. In surveying over 200 landing
gear structural component failures, the main mechanical problems involved: fatigue and corrosion.
So, in summary. Get your landing gear and related systems checked regularly, at least once a year.
During your landing approach, VFR or IFR say "three in the green" at least two or three times, after the gear has been deployed. Happy, safe landings!
* DVI Aviation-Aviation Safety Experts
**Failure Analysis of Aircraft Landing Gear Components 1992
Tuesday, February 28, 2017
I'm smiling as I look back at my first log book. The first entry is on November 4, 1961. Yes, I know that's going back some 56 years, that puts me at 21 year old. I was taking my first flight lesson in a military Pa-18 at Felker Army Air Base located at Fort Eustis,Va. just west of Newport News. Back then I did a total of only 15 hours of flight time. I just didn't feel comfortable flying then. Mostly because I felt the instructor, a military pilot, was over bearing. That pause lasted until May 9, 1965 some 4 1/2 years until I started again at Tew Mac a small airport in Massachusetts some 17 miles north of Boston. The Piper J-3 I flew was owned by the flying club I joined while with the Avco Corp in Wilmington, Ma.
The point of all this, I guess, is to reflect on and pass on to prospective pilots how one can get started in aviation. It seems important to me as now one hears so much of flying schools and various other programs. I am glad I did it as an individual rather than as a member of some flight class at a flight school. Somehow I developed a sense of independence and a progressive self reliance, rather than being led by the nose in a more structured program.
I persisted along this path for some 40+ years. After getting my first license as a private pilot, which allowed me to take passengers, I kept on going. Next, I obtained my instrument rating which allowed me to fly in bad weather. I went soon after for my commercial rating which meant I could fly for hire. Finally, I went for a multi engine rating. Mainly I did this so I could fly a company twin engine plane as a radiologist in upstate New York.
I would like to mention a couple of memorable flights that still stand out. The first, flying a J-3 Cub out of Tewksbury, Mass. north along a small river at about 500 ft. It was warm and I could leave the fold out windows open, really enhancing the feeling of being alone in the air. It felt so special to me, on one of my first solo flights. The other was years later out of Burlington Vermont. I was on call for emergency flights and I got a call at about 2330 hours. A skier at Lake Placid had taken a bad fall and needed high level medical help only available in the Burlington Vt, area at that time. So off I went in a Piper Navajo, a moderate sized 9 seater equipped with deicing etc., and made an instrument landing at Adirondack Regional airport. The weather was moderate IFR allowing for a safe approach and landing. The ambulance was waiting. We loaded the patient and his nurse aboard, took off IFR and were back in Burlington in 25 minutes. It was one of my most satisfying flights.
Every pilot's flight path is different. I thought I would share some of my experiences with you.
Saturday, December 31, 2016
Over the past five to six years, I have been writing about some of my flight experiences of the past 40 or so years. I have used this blog as the recording medium. The goal of this writing is to share these flight experiences in an effort to help fellow pilots avoid senseless and possibly fatal flight accidents.
Let me offer an example of how not to do it. Going back to 1967 in Syracuse, NY, where I was attending medical school, I needed to go to Boston for a quick visit. To accomplish this I rented a Cherokee 180, marginally IFR equipped for the trip. Three fellow students joined me. Weather forecast was VFR, with some possible IFR. This latter point is key.
My flight experience at the time, about 400 hours of VFR flying with some IFR instruction. We left Syracuse under beautiful VFR conditions. Some scattered clouds and a west (tail) wind of 20 to 30 knots. This is important. Flight distance about 260 miles, which meant a flight time of just under 2 hours at an airspeed of 120 mph (107 knots). Landing was planned for Hanscom Field, about 20 miles west of Boston.
After takeoff we climbed to 7500 feet, with a cruise speed of 150 mph (133 knots), thanks to the tail wind. Sounds good, but wait. After passing Albany, it started getting cloudy, scattered to broken clouds. This caused concern, especially as flight service advised possible marginal VFR for Boston at our ETA. So we continued until just west of Worcester. Flight Service advised that Worcester was going IFR as was Boston. So, what to do? As I was not a fully trained or certified IFR pilot, I need VFR conditions to fly legally and safely. I decided to do a 180 degree turn and head back to Albany and Syracuse. Fuel gauges showed somewhat more than ½ on both sides. That should be plenty except for the strong west wind! Ground speed was now of the order of 80 mph per hour (70 knots). Oh my. Do we have enough fuel to get to Albany or Syracuse? Well, in the interim, Albany was now IFR, also. That left Syracuse as our final alternate/destination as it had stayed VFR. But, would we have enough fuel to make it?
Since I am alive to write about it, you know we made it. Yes, but barely. As we approached Syracuse, the fuel gauges were hovering around E. After taxiing in and shutting down, I looked in the fuel tanks and didn’t see any gas. OUCH!
The moral of this story. Always have enough fuel aboard to fly another hour after landing as a safety measure.
Tuesday, December 29, 2015
Another Holiday has successfully come and gone, our tree is still up. Looking forward to a pleasant and relatively quiet New Year. I have been doing some reflecting on things, appropriate to the year's end, and decided that this would be my last Operationsafeflight blog for a while. I have been writing articles since February 2009, and covered just about all areas that have concerned me.
My goal has been to help pilots adopt safer flight procedures, and offer some suggestions and cures where appropriate. My plan is to write articles less frequently. I will also be open to answering questions submitted to me
Walter F. Erston, MD can be reached at:
Wednesday, November 25, 2015
Reading an article in the local Charlotte paper on doing away with required flight physicals taught me a lesson. Don’t believe everything you read, and do check the facts whenever possible. The Charlotte article stated that Senator Inhofe’s PBR2 would essentially do away with a required medical exam for Class 3 (private) pilots. Instead pilots would just write a note in their log every four years, that they’d been to see a physician. Looking further into what was written, according to Joan Lowy of the AP, “a pilot would double the time allowed between exams for pilots over age 40 from two to four years, so long as they also held a valid driver’s license. Instead of a government-certified medical examiner, pilots could see any doctor they like”. It went on to state the doctor would not have to certify to the FAA that the “pilot was healthy enough to fly”. I am shocked at the proposal and worried that something like that will get enacted.
Flying is not like driving a car. There are so many other things to consider, in addition to simple road maps and traffic signals, such as the subtleties encountered in flight like weather, aircraft performance, navigation and communication to name a few. Even at its simplest, the challenges can be huge, and are either met or calamity may occur. That is why I believe physical and mental condition evaluation to be so important.
Just to reiterate an experience I had when flying the right seat in a Pa-34 Seneca, I had to take over landing at a Cleveland airport under IFR conditions when the left seater suddenly felt ill and was unable to continue. It turned out that he had missed getting his flight physical, which most likely would have detected the condition that caused this problem.
In summary then: I strongly encourage the continuance for required flight physicals for all categories of pilots. The spacing between exams may vary, but the exams are not to be done away with. I strongly endorse the requirement that all pilots obtain a flight physical during their flight career. The time interval between exams is a separate issue, that I won’t get into here.
Another issue I would like to discuss is weather, particularly thunderstorms. I recently came across another discussion of the hazards associated with flying when thunderstorms are around. This becomes an issue when one is flying IFR under radar control, or when VFR with the bad guys out there somewhere. If one is under the eye of a controller, don’t assume that they will always steer you or advise you safely around a dangerous cell in your path. Particularly, in busy air space like New York, Boston or Atlanta, to name a few, the controller may be just too busy to pay attention to all on his screen. I remember having to dodge a cell because I received a warning too late, and almost lost the plane. Now with radar aboard, and a pilot familiar with its usage, the odds get much better. Again, remembering one radar experience I had that almost ended up badly, because the radar set just couldn’t penetrate the storm adequately for me to see a clear path through it.
My advice is: don’t try getting through an area of storms unless you have a clear, accurate picture of what’s ahead of you and have the experience to handle it. A 180 degree turn often can be a life saver.
Hope you have a happy Thanksgiving. Fly well and safely.
Tuesday, October 27, 2015
With winter on the horizon, its time to start thinking of things like ice, snow and sleet. Three things that can cause real danger to the casual pilot, and are best avoided. I had flown in to Monroe airport (EQY), just east of Charlotte, to be together with my wife for a weekend. As there was no hangar space available, I had to park the plane, a Cessna 340, next to a hangar outside in the cold. There was the possibility of some snow or ice, so I kept my fingers crossed. After spending a nice two days with my wife, it was time to fly back to Wilmington (ILM), just forty minutes away to the east. As there had been some precipitation, rain snow and even ice, I was concerned about what we would find. As it turned out, things were not good. There was a covering of light snow and ice over the entire plane.
It was Sunday evening, so no help from the FBO, which was closed. My wife and I just started out getting off what we could. We were dressed warmly, and fortunately had gloves on. We sure needed them as the hand broom just dealt with the snow. The ice would have to gotten off by hand. This was accomplished by banging on the ice where ever it was reachable. The areas of most concern were the airfoils, particularly the leading edges. Amazingly most of the ice on the rounded portions of the wing and tail, did break off when struck by our gloved hands. The flat portions of the wing did not want to cooperate, and we didn’t want to dent them either. I believed that getting the front portions of the ice off would suffice. Props had electric deice strips so no worry there. The plane was not heavily loaded. Take off would be done with some excess airspeed to offer a bit of a cushion, in case lift was lost.
Before climbing into the plane, I hugged my wife and reassured her, that I would test things out before actually lifting off. This was done to avoid stalling the plane due to the presence of residual ice. Taxiing out to the runway, I had a good feeling, that all would be OK. After a brief run-up, with prop heat on, I applied full power, feet pressing hard on the brakes. Things felt normal and off I went. The plane accelerated normally, so I gently applied pulled on the control wheel. The nose started to lift and airspeed seemed about normal, so I continued the take off. Climb appeared normal, and I even saw some of the residual ice break off the wing. Good riddance. And that was that. I felt quite lucky about how things had turned out. On landing at Wilmington I phoned my wife, and was pleased to leave an ”arrived safely” message. The reason for the message, was that I got to Wilmington before my wife drove back to our home in Charlotte.
Icing shouldn’t be treated casually. Each plane can respond to icing in a specific manner. Differing airfoils, power plants etc. all contribute to unique handling characteristics. The best advice I can offer is to avoid ice if you can.
Saturday, September 19, 2015
It seems that I have written about the type accidents that are occurring over and over again. Things like forgetting to lower the gear, or crashing alongside or off the runway in the weeds because of inattention. No one wants to read about them again. And, I don’t feel like dealing with them now either. So I am just going to relate some flight adventures of my own. Yes, maybe I will repeat myself.
Remembering some of my earliest flights as a young student or a neophyte private pilot, makes me laugh and groan a bit. For instance shortly after getting my private ticket, I invited three of my buddies for a short flight to the coast. Taking off from Tewksbury, MA., on runway 21, I dutifully turned south according to the DG (directional gyro). After a short while I noted the hills were getting more prominent and wondered why. Finally cross checking the DG with the compass I figured it out. I had set the DG off by 180 degrees. Nowadays, many DG’s are automatically linked with the proper magnetic heading, eliminating this sort of error. By the way, the trip finally went well, and we landed at Cape Cod and had a good swim.
One other incident remains solidly embedded in my personal flight computer. I was making a flight check for my instrument rating with an instructor friend of mine, in an Aztec. We had done several approaches and touch and go’s and were on a final flight. This had been a no gyro approach to simulate instrument failure. I guess the additional stress of doing something unusual contributed to my forgetting to complete my pre-landing check list. As a result as I was about to touch down the instructor calmly said: “ Aren’t you going to put the gear down?”. Wow, did that make an impression, as I added power and went around. I never again failed to complete the pre-landing check list and drop the gear. Yes, I firmly believe in check lists. Just keep them as simple as possible, and use them faithfully.
That’s it for now. Fly often and safely.